|Biology: The Living Science
pretends such mechanisms exist …
|… but evolutionary scientists |
admit they do not:
"An important point to remember is that the variety of genes carried by all
living species is the result of millions of years of random mutation, natural
selection, and genetic drift. An enormous number of diverse and potentially
useful characteristics in different plants and animals have evolved as a
result of these changes …."
— p. 271, col. 2, par. 1, lines 1-9
Q: "How might gene modification be a key to understanding evolution?"
— p. 278, "Expanding the Concepts," no. 4
A: "Mutations in genes, or gene modifications, create inheritable variation on which natural selection can act, and evolution occurs."
— p. 278, left margin, "Expanding the Concepts," no. 4, Teacher's Edition
"Evolution demands the acquisition over time, as organisms grow more complex,
of novelties whose information is inserted into the DNA strands in the form
of new genes.
"The supply of information and the subsequent creation of genes are profoundly separate mechanisms from the mutagenesis that produces alleles.
"… If evolution takes place without the acquisition of new genes, we must assume that the first living creature contained in itself enough genes to engender, by mutation of them, all past, present, and future faunas and floras. This is absurd.
"Any system that purports to account for evolution must invoke a mechanism not mutational and aleatory [i.e., relating to luck]."
— Pierre-Paul Grassé (Professor of Zoology, University of Paris, past-President, French Academie des Sciences), Evolution of Living Organisms (New York: Academic Press, 1977), p. 245. Italics in original.
"… many biochemical systems cannot be built up by natural selection working on mutations: no direct, gradual route exists to these irreducibly complex systems, and the laws of chemistry work strongly against the undirected development of the biochemical systems that make molecules such as AMP [adenosine monophosphate]."
— Michael Behe (Professor of Biochemistry, Lehigh University), Darwin's Black Box (New York: The Free Press, 1996), p. 203.